The exodus of Venezuelans that has become a wave in the world, especially in the South American region, but a book entitled The Venezuelan exodus: between exile and emigration explains that the displacement of the population arose in the Government of Hugo Chávez and has gone through different stages.
The book was edited by the Ibero-American Observatory on Human Mobility, Migration and Development, of the Comillas Pontifical University and explains that the first wave that left Venezuela was with the arrival of Chávez to power in 1999.
The first wave was about oil workers whom Chavez persecuted and harassed; also journalists, health workers and entrepreneurs. Those who had other nationalities and great purchasing power left in the first years of Chavismo.
The second wave began in 2012. At that time the purchasing power was plummeting, companies began to close. Crime also helped many make the decision to leave the country.
Political persecutions by Chavismo and the arrival of the Nicolás Maduro regime in 2013 triggered the stampede.
Luis Fernando Gomes, 27, is a computer engineer and left the country in 2014 after being a victim that almost cost him his life. Since then he has lived in Madeira, Portugal, and although he says that his land has not gone badly.
The third wave gained strength in 2015 and took a different meaning for international organizations, since from that moment they began to notice that migrants had a low social status; Migration began to be by necessity and not by choice.
Currently, the office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees estimates that more than 4,000,000 people have left Venezuela fleeing the crisis and seeking a better quality of life.